Alanya was located on the land of a little peninsula, on the north of whose there lied Toros Mt. and on the south there was Mediterranean Sea. Due to its location between Pamphylia and Cilicia the city was called both Pamphylia and Cilicia in the ancient age. Some skeletal and fossil remains found in two villages, Bademağacı and Oba, located on the northeast of county seat, prove the fact that Alanya’s history can be traced back to the Upper Paleolithic Era(BC 20.000 – 17.000), called “the dark ages” as well.
There is no sufficient information about the area’s ancient times and Byzantium era. According to famous historian Heredot’s scripts, people migrated here after the Trojan War on about the year 1820 BC and the city hosted various tribes. In the 16th century’s first half (BC), Hittites reached the land of Alanya and killed approximately 600 people. Then they ruled over the cities, Pamphylia and Cilicia. Between 224 and 118 BC, even though the whole Cilicia was invaded by Great Antiocus, the city maintained its independency as conquering of the city was too hard.
Later on the 7. century AD, the city was even more important than ever that castles had been built as a protection against Arabian raids. That’s why there are many castles and churches around Alanya, which date back to 6. and 7. centuries AD. The oldest known name of the city is Korakesium. Later on the Byzantium era, its name formed into Kalanoros.
I. Alaaddin Keykubad(1200-1237), one of the Anatolian Seljuk sultans, took over the control of Castle of Alanya by defeating Kyr Vart, a Christian tyran who lived in the castle, in 1221. The sultan married the daughter of Kyr Vart and then built a palace in the city, which he named after himself as Alaiye. Alanya, as well as Konya (the capital of the sultanate), was regarded as a capital and was used as a centre to pass the winter and so, there were many new constructions. The city was living its the most prosperous era under Alaaddin’s authority. Today, there are castles, dockyards and many other buildings that stand still as a heritage from that era.
After the fall of Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate in 1300, the city was ruled by a feudal community, Karamanoðullarý. Their capital was Konya as well. Karamanoðullarý sold Alanya to Egyptian Mameluk Sultanate in 1427 for a price of 5 thousand gold coins.After all, with the rise of Ottomans, who provided political association, Alanya was conquered in 1471 by Gedik Ahmet Pasha who was a general serving to Fatih Sultan Mehmet.
With the era of Ottoman Empire, Alanya was first regarded as a part of Cyprus in 1571 but later had been sanjak of the province of Konya in 1864. When it later had been a sanjak of Antalya in 1868, Alanya, finally had been a county of Antalya in 1871. Atatürk named the city as Alanya when he visited it in 1935.
Alanya is located on 36°33′ northern latitude and 31.01° eastern meridian. It’s acreage measures 2.085 km². Alanya is located in Mediterranean region within the borders of a province called Antalya. On its east there is Alanya Bay that has the same name. There are Meditarrenean Sea on its south, Gazipaþa on its east, Manavgat on its west and Toros Mt. on its north. Toros Mt. lie like a chain on its north with plains and mountains height of whose range from 500-600 m. to 2500-3000. Along the coast there are plains not too high. Climbing down to the plains from mountains is done through plateaus. Plateau begin to fade away as you get closer to the west on which there is Alanya Peninsula. To climb up to mountains from plateaus, it is necessary to pass steep slopes.
Climate and Vegetation Cover
There is a typical Meditarrenean climate over Alanya. It is hot and arid in summer, rainy and humid in winter. As the town is surrounded by high mountains on the west, north and east, winds that come from these directions can not reach Alanya and this makes the town a perfect place to grow a variety of plants that are also grow all around the world.
Other than the fruit growing that is done by the townsfolk, there is a fruit production station. The town is capable of producing 500.000 saplings a year thanks to a 1000 decare land since 1938 which is located among the borders of Aşağı Oba Village on the towns east. Fruits are distributed all around the country starting from Alanya. Though it is not too much, the station is able to grow a variety of fruits and vegetables producted as well worldwide. Some of these are Japanese plum, pomegranate, coffee, walnut, pineapple, guava, avocado, jujube and decoration plants for gardens. Greenhouse cultivation is a common occupation in and around Alanya. Farmers in Alanya can grow and distribute such fruits and vegetables that they can not survive the harsh cold of winter. Banana is also an important source of income other than early grown fruits and vegetables. Alanya’s bananas are very popular and delicious. Citrus fruits, orange, lemon and grapefruit are well known around the country.
Alanya Municipality was founded in 1872. Ahmet Asım Bey, the first mayor, began his duty in 1901. Since then Alanya Municipality has always developed day by day and worked for the welfare of public.
With the arrival of German tourists in the 60’s, Alanya hosted its first tourists. In the following years, firstly there showed up b&bs, then did motels and hotels. Doing agriculture and tourism successfully at the same time, Alanya, with the public’s sincere and friendly relationships, is held up as an example by all the touristic vicinities of Turkey.
Alanya Municipality, cooperating with civil society organizations such as Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Alanya(ALTSO), Tourism Introduction Foundation of Alanya(ALTAV), Touristic Managerships Institution of Alanya(ALTÝD), Environmental Peace and Cooperating Cultural Association of Alanya(ALKOD) and with chambers of merchants, is brightening the future of the town.
Alanya Municipality has also drawn attention with the sister cities it has on Europe. By reciprocal acts of parliments, Germany’s Gladbeck, Austria’s Schwechat, Poland’s Wodzislaw, Lithuania’s Trakai, Latvia’s Talsi, Sweden’s Boras, China’s Fushun, Hungary’s Keszthely, Greece’s Nea Ionia, Finland’s Rovaniemi, Czech Republic’s Spindleruv Mlyn and Russia’s Moscow cities are regarded as sister cities.